Sustainable Development: Concepts and Methods for Its Application in Urban and Environmental Planning

Beniamino Murgante1, Giuseppe Borruso2, and Alessandra Lapucci3

Sustainability: From Principles to Evaluation Methods
The idea of sustainable development may appear quite vague, fuzzy and evasive
(Pearce et al. 1989). In fact, whereas sustainability is related to a status of maintenance
and conservation of the existing conditions, both in space and time and is
referred to the capacity to guarantee a support without causing decay, the concept
of development implies, instead, an alteration and a transformation of actual
status, then a condition of instability.
This semantic conflict induces to an idea of both improvement and preservation:
in substance, the effective aim of a sustainable development is the possibility
to guarantee a better life quality for an enduring period of time.
The Bruntland report (1987) systematized the definition of environmental
sustainability even on a political level:
“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own
needs. It contains within it two key concepts: the concept of needs, in particular
the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority
should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology
and social organization on the environment’s ability to meet present and
future needs”.
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Sustainable Development: Concepts and Methods for Its Application in Urban and Environmental Planning

Beniamino Murgante1, Giuseppe Borruso2, and Alessandra Lapucci3
1 University of Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 10 – 85100 Potenza, Italy
e-mail: beniamino.murgante@unibas.it
2 University of Trieste, P.le Europa, 1 – 34127 Trieste, Italy
e-mail: giuseppe.borruso@econ.units.it
3 University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, 2 -56126 Pisa, Italy
e-mail: alessandra.lapucci@ing.unipi.it

1 Sustainability: From Principles to Evaluation Methods
The idea of sustainable development may appear quite vague, fuzzy and evasive
(Pearce et al. 1989). In fact, whereas sustainability is related to a status of maintenance
and conservation of the existing conditions, both in space and time and is
referred to the capacity to guarantee a support without causing decay, the concept
of development implies, instead, an alteration and a transformation of actual
status, then a condition of instability.
This semantic conflict induces to an idea of both improvement and preservation:
in substance, the effective aim of a sustainable development is the possibility
to guarantee a better life quality for an enduring period of time.
The Bruntland report (1987) systematized the definition of environmental
sustainability even on a political level:

“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own
needs. It contains within it two key concepts: the concept of needs, in particular
the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority
should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology
and social organization on the environment’s ability to meet present and
future needs”.
read more

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Spatial Analysis: Evolution, Methods, and Applications

by
Yuji Murayama and Rajesh B. Thapa

Development of Spatial Analysis with GIS
In a narrow sense, spatial analysis has been described as a method for analyzing
spatial data, while in a broad sense it includes revealing and clarifying processes,
structures, etc., of spatial phenomena that occur on the Earth’s surface. Ultimately,
it is designed to support spatial decision-making, and to serve as a tool for assisting
with regional planning and the formulation of government policies, among other
things. The world of GIS includes such terms as spatial data manipulation, spatial
data analysis, spatial statistical analysis, and spatial modeling. While there are
admittedly slight differences in the definitions of these terms (O’Sullivan & Unwin,
2003), they are subsumed in this chapter, which will examine spatial analysis in a
broad sense. read more

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Cellular Automata Innovative Modelling For Science And Engineering

Edited by Alejandro Salcido

Published by InTech
Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
Copyright © 2011 InTech

Modelling and simulation are disciplines of major importance for science and engineering. There is no science without models, and simulation has nowdays become a very useful tool, sometimes unavoidable, for development of both science and engineering. The numerical solution of diff erential equations  has for many years been a paradigm of the computational approaches for simulation. Nevertheless, some conceptually different strategies for modelling and simulation of complex behaviour systems have been developed from the introduction of the innovative concept of cellular automata by Stanislaw Ulam and John Von Neumann in the early 1950s. Cellular automata are dynamical systems which consist of a fi nite-dimensional latt ice, each site of which can have a fi nite number of states, and evolves in discrete time steps obeying a set of homogeneous local rules which defi ne the system´s dynamics. These rules are defi ned in such a way that the relevant laws of the phenomena of interest are fulfi lled. Typically, only the nearest neighbours are involved in the updating of the latt ice sites. read more

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Integrating models and geographical information systems

by
Roger Bivand and Anne Lucas

Introduction
Since geographic information systems (GIS) currently dominate our perception
of how computing and geography should interface, and since GeoComputation
(GC) is providing analysts of spatial phenomena with ever more powerful
computing tools, it may be helpful to examine the experience that has accrued
concerning links between them. Our examination is both empirical and
normative, and the reader may find it useful to repeat at least some of our
literature surveys, since new papers and articles are accumulating rapidly.
Searching on the key words ‘GIS’ and ‘model*’ or ‘integral*’, where ‘*’ is the
wild card, led to a wide range of hits both in ISI Science and Social Science
Citations Indices, and in OCLC-FirstSearch. These sources primarily contain
journal articles, while conference proceedings may be searched at the Ohio State
University GIS Master Bibliography Project, and more recently through the
web-sites of conference organizers, such as NCGIA and GISDATA in Europe.
Adding these resources to what we already knew about the issues involved, we
were able to scan the field for interesting regularities, trends, and citation
clustering. read more

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